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Haplotype frequencies of the β-globin gene cluster were estimated for 114 Evenkis and 81 Oroqens from northeast China, and their characteristics were compared with those in Japanese, Koreans, and three Colombian Amerindian groups of South America (Wayuu, Kamsa, and Inga tribes). A major 5 subhaplotype (5 to the δ-globin gene) was in Evenkis, whereas , , and were the major subhaplotypes in Oroqens. One possible candidate for an ancestral 5 subhaplotype, , was found in one Evenki (0.5%) and three Oroqen chromosomes (2.0%). They were observed as heterozygous forms for and . Major haplotypes were , , and in Evenkis, whereas they were , , , and in Oroqens. The lowest Nei’s genetic distance values of Evenkis or Oroqens based on the 5 subhaplotype frequency distributions were observed in relation to theWayuu or Koreans, respectively, but those of Evenkis and Oroqens based on the haplotype frequency distributions were found in relation to Koreans.