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In this study we analyzed a sample of the urban population of La Plata, Argentina, using 17 mtDNA haplogroups, the DYS199 Y-chromo- some polymorphism, and 5 autosomal population-associated alleles (PAAs). The contribution of native American maternal lineages to the population of La Plata was estimated as 45.6%, whereas the paternal contribution was much lower (10.6%), clearly indicating directional mating. Regarding auto- somal evidence of admixture, the relative European, native American, and West African genetic contributions to the gene pool of La Plata were esti- mated to be 67.55% (�2.7), 25.9% (�4.3), and 6.5% (�6.4), respectively. When admixture was calculated at the individual level, we found a low corre- lation between the ancestral contribution estimated with uniparental lineages and autosomal markers. Most of the individuals from La Plata with a native American mtDNA haplogroup or the DYS199*T native American allele show a genetic contribution at the autosomal level that can be traced primar- ily to Europe. The results of this study emphasize the need to use both uni- parentally and biparentally inherited genetic markers to understand the history of admixed populations.