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Published data on palmar interdigital ridge counts (a–b, b–c, and c–d) among 57 populations from the Indian subcontinent were analyzed with reference to ethnic, socioeconomic, linguistic, and geographic affiliations of the studied populations. The spatial autocorrelation analysis suggests significant correlation between dermatoglyphic and geographic distances. The congruence with the ethnic semblance of the groups is also apparent in the data, and, in fact, the multiresponse permutation procedure did suggest highly significant within-group homogeneity, confirming the biological validity of the social and ethnic criteria used in the analysis. The plots of populations on the first two principal components, accounting for 92% of the total variance, complement and support the results based on the other analyses, which show certain ethnic and geographic patterns. These findings can serve as baseline information for future studies on population variation in India, particularly studies based on molecular genetic markers, a trend that has already gained momentum.