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ABuryat population consisting of seven tribal groups in eastern Mongolia has been screened to determine the frequency distribution of different apolipoprotein E and H alleles (APOE and APOH, genes) coding for common isoforms and their association with quantitative plasma lipid levels. Allele frequencies at the APOE locus in 125 healthy Buryat aged 17 to 73 years were highest for APOE*3 (0.804), followed by APOE*4 (0.164) and APOE*2 (0.032). The APOH locus had high frequencies of APOH*2 (0.912) and APOH*3 (0.088). APOH*1 was not detected. No significant differences were observed in the overall APOE allele frequencies between the Buryat and the Siberian Evenki, Inuits, and Indians in Asia, or with some European whites. The frequency distribution of the overall APOH alleles of the Buryat was similar to that of the Japanese in Asia. Overall plasma lipid levels of the Buryat (males aged 20 to 73 years, females aged 21 to 64 years) were considerably lower, comparable to those of the Evenki. The APOE*4/E*3 males had significantly high total- and LDL-cholesterol levels compared with the APOE*3/E*3 males (p < 0.025 and p < 0.01, respectively). No significant effects of the APOH genotypes on any of the plasma lipid levels were observed. In particular, our data regarding APOE suggest that the Buryat are genetically close in allele frequencies to the Evenki and Inuits, but differ from them in the association of genotype APOE*4/E*3 with cholesterol levels.