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HLA-DQB1*0302 allele frequency is increased in liver graft recipients with acute rejection. We investigated polymorphism in the upstream regulatory regions (URRs) of the DQB1 gene to determine whether polymorphism in the DQB1 promoter region influences liver graft acceptance. A combination of typing protocols based on the polymerase chain reaction were used in 103 first-time liver transplants and 108 healthy Spanish controls. The QBP3.21 allele frequency and QBP3.21-DQB1*0302 haplotype were significantly different in recipients with acute rejection compared to those with good graft acceptance and to controls. Of major interest for acute rejection development are the promoter “splits” of DQB1*0302 (QBP3.21, QBP3.22, and QBP3.3 alleles), which are in linkage disequilibrium with DQB1*0302. The promoter splits were equally distributed in all groups. Thus, although there are significant differences in the frequencies of the QBP alleles and QBP-DQB1 haplotypes between recipients with and without acute rejection and controls, the composition of these haplotypes is essentially the same in all groups. In conclusion, our data show that the polymorphism in the DQB1 promoter region does not clearly influence liver graft acceptance, and, as occurs in other populations, QBP alleles exhibit strong linkage disequilibrium with the DQB1 locus.