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DNA samples were extracted from six prehistoric human remains, found on the Malay Peninsula, dating to the Paleolithic and the Neolithic periods. Nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial DNA were determined by the polymerase chain reaction–direct sequencing method. A phylogenetic tree between prehistoric and present humans was constructed based on the nucleotide sequence data. Mitochondrial DNA phylogenetic relationships and ethnoarchaeological evidence suggest that there is a continuity beetween the pre-Neolithic humans and the present Semang and that the Neolithic humans in this area might be an ancestral group of the Senoi.