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This study provides the frequencies of four mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups of 233 native South Amerindians in eight populations living in the Beni Department of Bolivia, including six populations not previously studied. Linguistically, these populations belong to the three principal South Amerindian language stocks, Andean, Equatorial-Tucanoan, and Ge-Pano-Carib. Frequency analyses under geographic, historic, linguistic, and genetic configurations using the e statistic of Weir (Weir 1990) and analysis of molecular variance (AMOV A) show similar results. Results are also similar when phenetic cluster is used. Aymara belongs almost exclusively to haplogroup B, Quechua- and Moseten-speaking tribes belong to haplogroups A and B, but the first tribe presents high frequencies of haplogroup B. Yuracare, Trinitario, and [gnaciano exhibit high frequencies of A, B, and C haplogroups, and the Movima present a large proportion of haplogroup C. There is some correspondence between mtDNA haplogroup frequencies and language affiliation and historical connections, but less so with geographic aspects. The present study provides a context for understanding the relationship between different Amerindian populations living in a multiethnic area of Bolivia.