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Genetic variation at 9 autosomal microsatellite loci (CFS1R, TH01, PLA2A, F13A1, CYP19, LPL, D20S481, D20S473, and D20S604) has been characterized in 16 Asian and Oceanic populations, mostly from mainland and insular Southeast Asia. The neighbor-joining tree and the principal coordinates analysis of the genetic relationships of these populations show a clear separation of Papua New Guinea Highlanders and, to a lesser extent, Malayan aborigines (Orang Asli or Semai) from the rest of the populations. Although the number of markers used in this study appears to be inadequate for clarifying the patterns of genetic relationships among the studied populations, in the principal coordinates analysis a geographic trend is observed in the mainland and insular Southeast Asian populations. Furthermore, in an attempt to contrast the extent of variation between autosomal and Y-chromosome-specific microsatellite loci and to reveal potential differences in the patterns of male and female migrations, we have also compared genetic variation at these 9 autosomal loci with variation observed at 5 Y-chromosome-specific microsatellites in a common set of 14 Asian populations.