Document Type



We studied spatial patterns for 24 allele frequencies representing 15 systems (blood antigens, enzymes, serum proteins, colorblindness, and cerumen) in Japan. The total number of samples over all systems and localities is 1125. We investigated patterns of genetic variation graphically as interpolated allele frequency surfaces, as one-dimensional and directional correlograms, and by testing for the direction of maximal genetic autocorrelation. We examined the allele frequency surfaces by various techniques of spatial autocorrelation analysis and found 13 allele frequency surfaces from 9 genetic systems exhibiting significant spatial patterns. Several surfaces have clinal patterns along the major axis of the Japanese archipelago; others tend toward a maximum or minimum in south-central Honshu. Yet other allele frequencies show long-distance differentiation or patchiness. We discovered seven areas of rapid genetic change by using the wombling method. These areas largely reflect maritime and montane barriers, and some are associated with dialectal boundaries in these populations. The observed patterns support the hybridization or dual structure hypothesis for the peopling of Japan.