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Hematological traits are commonly assessed markers of health status that have been used in a large number of anthropological studies, especially those focusing on high-altitude adaptation. Despite the wealth of literature on environment-associated variation in these traits, relatively few studies have dealt with the underlying genetic components of hematological measures. The purpose of this study is to estimate heritabilities for eight hematological traits using data obtained from a large pedigreed chimpanzee colony. Seven of the eight hematological traits exhibited significant heritabilities, ranging from / h2 = 0.308 for mean cell volume to h2 = 0.834 for red blood cell count. The use of multiple measures per individual proved to be essential for the accurate estimation of heritabilities. We conclude that the underlying genetic variation in hematological traits should be considered when these measures are used in study protocols.