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A metric study of 71 Japanese and 106 Australian aboriginal precontemporary crania was undertaken using direct measurements and cephalograms. Compared with Australian aboriginals, the Japanese are characterized by smaller cranial length, cranial base length, nasal floor length, palatal length, mandibular dimensions (except symphysis height), facial depth, posterior face height, and facial profile angle and larger cranial breadth and height, maxillary breadth , palatal breadth, anterior face height, and occlusal and mandibular plane angles. These differences confirm the previously described brachycephalic tendency in aboriginals and the dolichocephalic form in the Japanese. The differences are also consistent with the expected functional differences between the Australian aboriginal hunter-gatherer group masticating more resistant food with larger, more anteriorly located, more powerful masseter muscles and the Japanese group masticating less resistant food with correspondingly less robust masticatory musculature. The results highlight the differences incranio facial morhology between groups with different genetic backgrounds subjected to significantly different environmental influences.