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Genetic heterogeneity in nine polymorphic loci is observed among Gond-related tribes in the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra. Pardhans, with their high ABO*A2 gene frequecy (4.01%), low m gene frequency (57%), high P*1 gene frequency (42.7%), and high HbS trait (31.58%), differs significantly from other tribes. Per locus average heterozygosity among the studied tribes ranged from 36.24% to 40.37%, with Pardhans being more heterozygous. Analysis by FST and the empirical relationship between average allele frequencies and the ratio of within-gene to total gene diversity show that the tribes are isolated and that differentiation among them is at an early stage and approximately in conformity with expected differentiation under genetic drift. However, distances and principal components analysis reveal that Pardhans are far removed from the other tribes and from other central Dravidian tribes. Furthermore, of the various demographic parameters estimated, the high average heterozygosity in Pardhans is significantly correlated with me an marital distance (MMD), regression of MMD on wife’s age, and effective population size. There is congruence between genetic and demographic data, showing that Pardhans are distinct.This conforms with Haimendorf’s (1979) contention based on cultural traits that Pardhans are Gonds by historical accident and are later migrants to the Gond area from the north. The most significant and practical observation of the present study is that migration from an originally nontribal (Pardhan) to a tribal (Gond) are a and admixture lead to severe disease course, differential selection pressure, and hence highly elevated HbS trait frequency.