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Four-hundred fifty-nine people, including 106 Santals, 43 Bhuiyas, 107 Sakaldipi Brahmins, 108 Chamars, and 95 Ansari Muslims, of the Giridhi district of Bihar have been tested for transferrin, group-specific component, phosphoglucomutase subtypes, and glyoxalase-I, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase, and adenylate kinase types. Genetic distance estimates by both dendrogram and principal component methods for these 5 populations and the Oraons on the basis of 19 alleles at 6 polymorphic loci indicate 2 major clusters: Brahmins and Muslims, the latter of which is composed of two subclusters (Santals and Bhuiyas, and Oraons and Chamars). The Santal and Bhuiya tribes both speak Mundari, whereas the Oraons speak a Dravidian language. The Chamars, although low-caste Hindus, seem to have a non-Europoid origin, as do the Oraons.