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Data on intestinal parasite infections for South American Indians in prehistoric times as revealed by coprolite analysis are being used to support transoceanic migration routes from the Old World to the New World. These same findings on modem semiisolated aborigines, considered persisting prehistoric patterns, are also of great importance as indicators of pre-Columbian peopling of South America. This is the case for the Lengua Indians from Paraguay, studied in the 1920s, and the Yanomami and the Saluma from Brazil, studied in the 1980s. The intestinal parasitic profile of these groups can be empirically associated with culture change, but no clear correlations with the population biology of their hosts can be made at present because of scarcity of data.