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We studied demographic characteristics of two Mura Indian villages. Two-hundred six inhabitants of these villages and another population were tested in relation to 30 blood and 4 saliva genetic systems. These groups exhibit high mobility and exogamy rates and high fertility but relatively low mortality and variance in number of children per woman. Hb J Oxford and albumin Maku were observed, and they show high prevalences of GPT*1 and RH*R1 but low of HP*1 compared to other South American Indians. Four electrophoretic saliva systems are reported here for the first time in a predominantly Amerindian group. The amount of polymorphism was more limited than that found in Caucasian, black, and Oriental populations. The Mura are still predominantly Indian (82%) but have African (11%) and Caucasoid (7%) admixture. Using these values, the putative ancestral Mura gene frequencies were assessed. Problems related to quantitative estimations of admixture and the factors that influence the process are discussed.