To understand the genetic variation that occurs among regions of northern England, we estimated migration from places of birth and residence in the last two generations for a sample of 1367 families in Northumberland. There has been an increase in kinship among regions, compatible with the increased mobility of recent decades, but the kinship patterns suggest that any regional gene frequency differences have remained relatively undiluted. Comparison of kinship and geographic distance between regions indicates that geographic location is an important determinant of genetic structure.
Roberts, D. F.; Mitchell, R.J.; and Jorde, L.B.
"Migration and Genetic Structure in Northumberland,"
4, Article 2.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/humbiol/vol62/iss4/2