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Eighty-six females and 79 males from the Basque valley of Deba were analyzed with respect to their digital patterns using correspondence analysis. We found that there was a significant sexual difference for only one type of pattern, tented arch. Also, this population was compared with other Basque valley populations and with other Spanish populations. We found great variability among Basque subpopulations, despite their supposed common origin. Dermatoglyphic distances for some traits can be interpreted as genetic distances because there is high heritability of these traits. The results of the comparison between the Deba valley population and other Spanish populations showed that the Deba population is markedly distant from the other populations.