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The coefficient of relationship by isonymy Ri is a good indicator of similarities between and within populations by means of identity of surnames. In this study we present the results of an analysis of Ri obtained using two surnames for each person in two small Venezuelan populations of African origin: Birongo and La Sabana. The analyses of six Ri values within each population in two periods and of sixteen Ri values within each population between two periods and within each period between populations show that the higher values of Ri are those that include combinations of maternal surnames compared with any other combination and that in one period the relationship between Birongo and La Sabana was equal to 0, as measured with combinations of paternal surnames. These facts are indicators of a tendency toward matrifocal behavior and show that the use of four surnames for estimating Ri permits detailed comparisons of the relationship between and within groups.