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I describe the developmental, metric, morphologic, and pathologic features of deciduous dentition in a terminal Late Archaic (c. 3000 B.P.) Native American population in Ohio. Development of deciduous dentition in this Late Archaic population is stable with little sequence variation. The pattern of development (ldc, ldp3, ldp4) cannot be shown to be different from a modem Euro-American sample. There is an indication, however, that the permanent first molar in the Late Archaic population developed somewhat more rapidly with respect to the deciduous teeth than in the Euro-American sample. Metric and morphologic features of deciduous dentition in the Late Archaic population appear typical for a population of northeast Asian descent. In general, these metric and morphologic features are shown to be useful in distinguishing among populations of differing ancestries. Developmental and acquired pathologic conditions of deciduous dentition are rare or absent in the Late Archaic population. Absence of linear enamel hypoplasia indicates sufficient access to basic resources for the younger children of this population, and the low frequency of caries reflects the relatively cariogenic-free nature of the diet of these hunter-gatherers.