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We gathered serogenetic and parent-offspring migration data from 604 residents of 7 villages on the Pelješac peninsula in southern Yugoslavia. A variety of population genetics and multivariate statistics models and procedures give a concordant picture of the population structure of this region. Extensive migration is the dominant microevolutionary force patterning the variation seen today. Multiple population bottlenecks have also occurred over the past few centuries as a result of disease, famine, war, economic failure, and founder events, making it likely that genetic drift has been an important factor in the history of this population system.