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We describe the gene frequency distributions for 29 different blood group, serum, and erythrocytic proteins for three Mennonite communities from Kansas and Nebraska and compare their gene frequencies with those of Amish, Hutterite, and Mennonite populations using the topological method of Harpending and Jenkins (1973). Subdivision of these communities into congregations reveals that the “fission-fusion” model best characterizes the relationship between the genetic patterns and historical events. These Mennonite populations, although reproductively isolated at the turn of this century, are presently entering the mainstream of US rural culture.