The distributions of the major hemoglobin variants found in the Old World are simulated assuming that each of the S, C, and E variants had a single origin and that β-thalassemia occurred as many different mutations. The present distributions of these variants are considered unstable and were best approximated after about 100-150 generations of diffusion and selection. The model is considered to approximate the distributions of these variants better than hypotheses based on multiple mutations.
Livingstone, Frank B.
"Simulation of the Diffusion of the β-Globin Variants in the Old World,"
3, Article 1.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/humbiol/vol61/iss3/1