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The incidence of the different degrees of expression of Carabelli’s trait in the deciduous and permanent dentitions was obtained on 651 skulls of three human prehistoric aboriginal samples from Gran Canaria (n=329), Tenerife (n=297) and La Gomera (n=25) Islands. In the Gran Canaria sample, the total trait frequency for the permanent first molar was slightly greater in males, who also showed a higher degree of expression than females. However, in this sample, as well as in the Tenerife sample, the differences between the two sexes were not statistically significant. A high concordance regarding the presence and grade of expression of the trait was found between right and left sides, as well as between the deciduous and permanent dentitions. Marked differences were observed with respect to the incidence of the diverse degrees of expression of the trait between the Gran Canaria and Tenerife populations, whose cultural and anthropological differences are well established. The findings suggest that Carabelli’s trait could be useful in establishing phylogenetic relationships between closely related populations.