240 urban and 372 rural children between the ages of 7 and 12 inclusive from the capital city and Kgalagadi region of Botswana were measured for height, weight, arm circumference, and maximum grip strength. Unlike previously reported data on endurance running ability, urban children were superior in grip strength. Even when strength was normalized for body weight and arm circumference, the result persisted. Power function analysis and analysis of variance revealed different strength development patterns for urban and rural children, however. The urban superiority in strength was greatest at earlier ages and less noticeable at older ones. The result is at odds with what is known about daily activity levels, growth patterns, and body composition of Tswana children and further work on physical performance abilities of southern African children is recommended.
Corlett, J T.
"Strength Development of Tswana Children,"
4, Article 6.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/humbiol/vol60/iss4/6