Ridge-counts of palmar interdigital areas were carried out for 109 45,X Turner Syndrome patients, 1172 male and 1024 female controls. Turner patients differ from controls in having larger a-b counts and smaller c-d counts. Eigenvectors of the covariance matrices show both Turner patients and controls to exhibit a radio-ulnar gradient of loadings, but in Turner patients the gradient is steeper. These results agree with other lines of evidence suggesting developmental reduction in Turner Syndrome, particularly on the ulnar side of the hand. Turner patients are more variable than controls as judged by the trace of their covariance matrix. Apparently the absence of a sex chromosome lowers morphogenetic integration.
Jantz, R L. and Brehme, H
"Palmar Interdigital Ridge-Counts in 45,X Turner Syndrome,"
3, Article 9.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/humbiol/vol60/iss3/9