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Selection potential based on differential fertility and mortality has been computed for Muria, Madia, Halba and Bhattra tribal population groups of Bastar District of Madhya Pradesh inhabiting similar geo-climatic and environmental conditions. It is evident that irrespective of the methodology, the total index of selection was found to be highest among Bhattras (0.637) followed by Madias (0.558), Murias (0.514) and Halbas (0.410). The relative contribution of the mortality component to the index of total selection is higher than the corresponding fertility component in all the tribal groups except Bhattras where the fertility component exceeds mortality component. Analysis of the post-natal mortality components indicates that childhood mortality constitutes the bulk of post-natal mortality, suggesting that children below 5 years need better health care among these tribal groups.