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206 men and women aged 20 years and over were studied in rural and urban populations in the Priangan Highlands, West Java, to assess the different effects of urinary sodium/potassium ratios and physique on blood pressure. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures increased with age, especially in the urban sample. The urinary sodium/potassium ratio was higher in the urban residents. Among individuals within the same group, no relationship was found between blood pressure and urinary sodium/potassium ratio, except in rural women. A significant correlation was found between blood pressure and the body mass index of individuals in the urban samples only.