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Body weight, skinfold thicknesses, daily energy intake, and energy expenditure were measured in eleven primiparas over the first six months postpartum. All variables were measured at 4, 10, 16, 22 and 28 weeks postpartum. Weight and skinfolds (triceps, biceps, subscapular and suprailiac sites) were also measured during the first week postpartum. Differences in reported intake and expenditure as well as physique changes were compared between lactating (L) (n = 4) and bottlefeeding (B) (n — 7) women. The B group show significant declines in both subcutaneous fat and weight up to weeks 16 and 22, respectively, after which they show significant increases in these variables (p ≤ 0.01). The L group show a continuing decrease in weight (p ≤ 0.03) and fat throughout the study. The mean energy intake of the L group was higher than that of the B group at 4 weeks postpartum only (p ≤ 0.01). Reported activity patterns were similar between the two groups. Estimates of energy expenditure using the activity record of Bouchard et al. (1983) appear to be erroneously high.