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It has been suggested that Amerindians, like their genetic rela­tives in Asia, experience higher rates of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL(P)) than those of European ancestry. Similar impressions from a sur­gical service in Campeche, Mexico, led to a survey of Mayan residents of the state of Campeche. A review of the medical records of this surgical service and a field survey of Mayan villages in various parts of the state showed that risk in rural areas is slightly higher than in urban areas, but that neither are high in relation to that reported elsewhere. The relationship of estimated risk to population size could reflect inaccuracies in ascertainment of cases and in the census, especially in urban areas, but could also reflect the higher amounts of European genetic admixture in larger population centers. Three families with multiple cases were observed, one containing 4 affected individuals, slightly higher than the percent of familiality reported elsewhere.