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The objective of the study was to determine whether the body composition of rural workers constitutes a limiting factor in their productivi­ty responses to different work situations. Fifty-six Guatemalan sugarcane cutters were measured thrice (PI, P2, P3), at two-month intervals, each point representing different work conditions. Body composition was esti­mated from arm muscle circumference and the mean of four skinfolds. Productivity indicators were: daily tonnage of sugarcane cut, number of days worked per fortnight and gross earnings per fortnight. Analysis of variance of repeated measures was used. Findings showed no significant differences in productivity among workers with different PI body composition. Mean productivity levels differed significantly between periods. Changes in mean skinfold and in arm muscle circumference between periods were generally equal among workers with different PI body composition, and were the same for workers of different ages and heights. Changes in productivity between periods were equal among workers with different body composi­tion. Body composition played no role in how workers changed their pro­ductivity in response to different work settings and conditions.