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Tooth-size correlations within the deciduous and permanent dentitions were compared between 272 individuals with Down syndrome (DS) and 321 normal individuals. The values of coefficients were generally lower in the permanent dentition of DS subjects indicating a decrease in size-coordination due to the chromosomal imbalance. This trend was not so evident in the deciduous teeth. There was also some alteration in the pattern of correlations in DS compared with normal individuals, particularly between mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of permanent anterior teeth, which may be explained by a reduction in mitotic activity of cells at the time the tooth germs were developing.