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To determine whether living near a hazardous waste site had an adverse impact on growth, 493 children living near Love Canal and 428 children living in matched census tracts were compared. Anthropometric measures of children, statures of parents, demographics, and health infor­mation were obtained. The two groups were similar for midparent height and for most demographic variables.Children born and spending at least 75% of their lives in the Love Canal area (n = 172) had significantly shorter stature for age than control children. These children had a mean stature for age percentile of 46.6 ± SE 2.2 (n = 172) compared with 53.3 ± SE 1.4 (n = 404) for children born in the control area (p = 0.004). The difference in stature associated with birth and residence in the Love Canal neighborhood could not be accounted for by differences in midparent height, socioeconomic class, nutrition, birth weight, or chronic illness. Mean weight for age percentile was 50.1 ± SE 2.2 for exposed children compared with 53.1 ± SE 1.4 for controls. The difference was not statistically significant.