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A survey of blood pressure was conducted in 35,629 native Tibetans and 5,167 Han migrants above 15 years of age living at altitudes from 2500 m to 5000 m in the Xizang Autonomous Region (Tibet). The age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension was 9.94% among 35,629 native Tibetans. The prevalence ranged from 4.9% to 19.4% in various regions of Tibet with the highest rate occurring in Lhasa. Among 5,167 Han migrants residing in Tibet, age-adjusted prevalence ranged from 4.78% in five other regions to 8.73% in Lhasa. The prevalence of hypertension in Tibetans was greater than among Hans as were the average blood pressures. Tibetan females had higher blood pressures than Tibetan males whereas Han females had lower blood pressures than Han males. Results suggest that the prevalence of hypertension was high in Tibetans in comparison with Hans and also in comparison with other high altitude regions of the world. The influence of hypoxia and other factors at high altitude on blood pressure needs to be investigated further.