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The effect of cigarette smoking during pregnancy upon postnatal growth is investigated in a cross-sectional study of 219 children, 6-11 years of age from a suburb of the eastern U.S. Ten anthropometric dimensions were measured following U.S. Health Examination Survey guidelines. Parents were interviewed to learn of social and biological factors that can affect growth, including cigarette smoking during pregnancy. The sample is of working and middle class families of European ancestry. Stepwise multiple regression analysis is used to examine differences between the offspring of smokers and nonsmokers in the rate of growth and in the size for age. There were no differences in the rate of growth between the offspring of smokers and non-smokers. After correcting for social and biological factors, mother’s cigarette smoking is significantly related to the size of the triceps skinfold thickness, and the upper arm circumference of offspring. Although mother’s cigarette smoking during pregnancy may be the cause of the observed differences, mother’s alcohol consumption during pregnancy, and the child’s postnatal nutrition also may have contributed to the observed differences.