Heath-Carter somatotypes were determined on 206 male members of South Australian representative squads in 17 sports. Complete state squads were tested in the following sports: badminton, basketball, cycling, field hockey, field lacrosse, gymnastics, speed roller skating, squash, swimming and volleyball. Thirty-six percent of the subjects had either represented their country in international competition or, in the case of Australian Rules football, received All-Australian recognition. The overall somatotype of 2.3-5.3-2.8 (balanced mesomorph) was significantly (p < 0.05) less endomorphic, more mesomorphic and more ectomorphic than baseline data in the literature. The sportsmen are therefore better equipped for physical activity in that they have to displace less relative fat mass yet have a greater relative muscle mass with which to initiate and sustain movement. Ten of the group means were in the ectomorphic mesomorph category, 5 were balanced mesomorphs and 2 were in the endomorphic mesomorph grouping. A one-way MANOVA, which used Wilks’ lambda as the test statistic, was employed to determine whether there were any statistically significant differences between the group somatotype means. This analysis was significant beyond the 0.05 level. Subsequent pairwise comparisons by means of Hotelling’s T2 with a Bonferroni adjusted alpha level of 0.00048 indicated that there were significant differences between the following: the field lacrosse players (2.9-5.4-2.5) and both the gymnasts (1.9-6.1-2.5) and Australian Rules footballers (2.1-5.7-2.5); the rugby union footballers (2.7-6.0-2.0) and swimmers (1.9-4.7-3.6); and the gymnasts (1.9-6.1-2.5) and track and field athletes (2.0-4.7-3.4).
Withers, R T.; Craig, N P.; and Norton, K I.
"Somatotypes of South Australian Male Athletes,"
3, Article 4.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/humbiol/vol58/iss3/4