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Studies on 2244 farmers in 49 regions in various parts of Japan revealed that the prevalence of anemia, judged by hemoglobin concentration, was 3.7% in men and 10.0% in women. These percentages are lower than those observed in a similar study about 10 years ago. The Hb levels were lower in summer as compared with winter except among Okinawa and Amami sugarcane farmers. In addition to the climate, the decrease appeared to be associated with work intensity in agricultural activity. The decrease was most evident among dairy farmers with the hardest work, and least among rice farmers whose work was the most mechanized. The changes were intermediate among farmers producing rice and tobacco with a moderate workload. The least change in Hb levels was among Okinawa and Amami farmers and may be attributable to the fact that their busy season of sugarcane harvest is winter; in contrast, farming activity is highest in warmer seasons in other parts of Japan.