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Normative odontometric data are presented on 202 living Lengua Indians of the Chaco area of Paraguay. This group is characterised by relatively large teeth and high percentages of sex dimorphism compared to other Amerindian populations. When correlation effects among the teeth were held constant through multivariate canonical analyses, contributions to male-female distance were found to be different from those isolated by univariate means. Our findings failed to support the canine field theory of sex dimorphism. Weighted mean coefficients of variation with sex-related variability removed showed reversal of the patterns of variability predicted by Butler’s field theory in the upper incisor and lower molar fields. The frequencies of the M2 > M1 molar size sequence in Lengua Indians fell within the range of frequencies reported for other Amerindian groups.