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The distribution of ABO, Rho(D) and Kell(K) blood markers in 35 municipalities in the Province of Lucca are presented. The data were collected in blood transfusion centers from donors born and resident in this Province: 17,868 individuals were available for the ABO system and Rho(D) antigen (4.6% of the resident population) and 7,981 individuals were available for the Kell antigen (2.1% of the resident population). The data grouped according to the main geographic-demographic variates of the Province were elaborated by x2, Rst> genetic and similarity distance matrices analysis. The various parameters consistently show highly significant dif­ferences especially for the samples coming from plain and coast compared with the mountaneous regions, reflecting distinctive demographic and geographical features. In addition, the above analysis combined with all possible genetic-geographic distance correlations among municipalities suggests that the genetic pattern is most likely due to an oriented genetic flow from the rural areas to Lucca, the chief-town of the Province, and the effects of drift in the geographically more remote and isolated municipalities.