In the present study we examined five different measures of lateral functional dominance: foot preference (kicking a ball), eye preference, digital interlocking (hand clasping), arm folding and foot overlapping. The calculated frequencies of left and right dominance for each of these variables suggested a significant (p < .01) association between the two foot functions, foot preference and foot overlapping, in both males and females. The foot functions also showed a significant association with handedness (handwriting). With the exception of the significant association between eye preference and foot preference in females, the three remaining traits, eye preference, digital interlocking and arm folding were found to be independent of each other, as well as of the two foot functions and handedness. The frequencies of left dominance for the two foot functions, foot preference and foot overlapping were twice as high in males as in females. The other traits showed no sex related differences in lateral dominance. Cross-sectional age comparisons gave no evidence that the frequency of any of the five traits studied change with age once adulthood has been reached.
Plato, Chris C.; Fox, Kathleen M.; and Garruto, Ralph M.
"Measures of Lateral Functional Dominance: Foot Preference, Eye Preference, Digital Interlocking, Arm Folding and Foot Overlapping,"
3, Article 4.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/humbiol/vol57/iss3/4