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Despite recent research into the demographic concomitants of sedentism, little data of this nature is available for South Asia. This paper examined genealogical data from 23 Juang tribal villages in central Orissa, India, to determine patterns of demographic change arising from incipient sedentism. Maternal history analysis by indirect estimation techniques revealed higher fertility, but approximately equivalent mortality, levels for sedentary groups relative to nomadic counterparts. This confirms previous research noting increased fertility with the advent of settlement, but goes against earlier findings of decreased mortality pressures with sedentism.