Differences in total facial height and in bigonial and midfacial breadths are compared in developing North Indian (Punjab) and central Kentucky groups, according to two specific etiologies for narrow or excessively long faces: oral breathing and dietary consistency. We find no differences due to diagnosed chronic oral breathing. On the other hand significant changes result from elevated chewing forces during growth in response to less processed food; the changes, however, vary from higher faces in Punjabis to shorter and broader faces in Kentuekians.
Corruccini, Robert S.; Whitley, L Darrell; Kaul, Samvit S.; Flander, Louisa B.; and Morrow, Carol A.
"Facial Height and Breadth Relative to Dietary Consistency and Oral Breathing in Two Populations (North India and U.S.),"
2, Article 4.
Available at: https://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/humbiol/vol57/iss2/4