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This study compares a sample of rural French-Canadian schoolchildren to a sample of urban counterparts for height, biacromial width and weight. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed consistent biacromial width and irregular concomittant height and weight differences; namely, rural schoolchildren have a wider body frame than their urban peers. These results suggest that migratory patterns and endogamous practices contribute to the genetic differentiation of ethnically homo­geneous sub-populations. The more general issue of the epistemological value of results reported in sub-population studies is also examined, particularly, with respect to environmental causal inferences.