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A minimum of 176 adults from three Early Woodland Adena and five Late Archaic Glacial Kame burial sites are scored for the presence of 26 discrete traits. An analysis of diversity of the frequencies of these traits shows that 88.73% of the variation arises within samples (i.e. within sites), 8.15% arises between samples within the Adena and Glacial Kame burial complexes and only 3.12% arises from the between burial complex source. Additional findings show little evidence of subdivision of populations in these two groups. The results are interpreted as indicating that the Glacial Kame and Adena populations studied here were not homogeneous, could have shared, at least, a recent common ancestor and that an ancestor (Glacial Kame) - descendant (Adena) relationship is plausible if the groups were allochronic. If Glacial Kame and Adena were roughly contemporaneous the results indicate an extensive biological interaction among their populations. These conclusions while not necessarily related to cultural variability support an emerging perspective of the processes involved on the cultural dynamics postulated for Glacial Kame and Adena burial complexes.