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The relationship between aerobic fitness and serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration (HDL-C) was examined in 108, five to twelve year old children after statistical adjustment for sex, age, body fatness and triglyceride level (TG). The children did not smoke, drink alcohol or take hormones. Aerobic power (Vo2 max), measured during a treadmill test, was used as the physical fitness variable. The fatness variables included the Quetelet Index (weight • height-2), the sum of six skinfolds and body density (underwater weighing). Vq2 max was directly correlated to HDL-C, r = 0.18, p < 0.05. Fatness was not significantly related to HDL-C, (r2 ^ .03). The independent relationship ofVo2 max to HDL-C was not significant after controlling for age, sex, fatness and TG. The percentage of the variability in HDL-C that could be explained by a combination of age, sex, Vo2 max, fatness and TG was statistically significant, but low, ranging from 11 to 12%.The only significant (negative) partial regression coefficient was that for TG. The results did not change regardless of which fatness indicator was used. These results suggest that fitness may not be independently related to HDL-C in young children.The favorable values of fitness and HDL-C of these children may have been responsible.