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Changes in the pattern of human growth and the relevant environmental factors in Japan were reported in this journal in 1966. There have been some changes since. From the 1960s to the 1970s there has been an unprecedented acceleration of growth in height of children in Japan as well as great economic growth. The peculiar geographic distribution as well as the urban-rural discrepancy of growth in height formerly noted are now disappearing. The connection between economic growth and physical growth may be interpreted by reference to nutritional data. This reconfirms the importance of the spread of milk drinking, a part of the Na­tional School Lunch Program, as a primary influence on the growth of Japanese children.