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The existing evidence for a Jewish advantage in terms of lower respiratory tuberculosis mortality is reviewed and criticized. New evidence on Sephardic Jews is presented. Analysis of cause-specific death records for the inhabitants of Gibraltar from 1890 to 1939 revealed that the Sephardic Jews enjoyed a relative advantage over non-Jews in terms of respiratory tuberculosis mortality. Socioeconomic, demographic, and cultural factors appear to have buffered the Jews, particularly those in the post-reproductive age categories, from respiratory tuberculosis.