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The present study examines the marital histories and reproductive performance of 996 couples who married within the Anglican parish of Fogo (Newfoundland) between 1850 and 1949. Only 30% of all children born within the population actually took part in the breeding structure of the parish. Economic restraints within the fishing economy are judged to be the cultural factors influencing the potential for micro-evolution within the population. In particular, the emigration of young adults, due to the lack of employment opportunities, is identified as the single most important factor limiting the size of the parish’s breeding population.