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Physical characteristics of the young people in Fukuoka City and in Naze and Kikai in Amami archipelago were compared. The adjusted maximal oxygen intake for body weight showed that the capacity to perform exhausting work should be the least in the Naze group and the largest in the Kikai group. Comparisons of regression lines of maximal oxygen intake on body weight and on lean body mass suggested remarkable age-dependent changes in the physical fitness in the young populations. Previous surveys reported a retarded development of physical characteristics in young people in the Amami archipelago. This survey, however, shows less tendency to retardation in Amami young people.