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Mixed-longitudinal growth data for height and weight of 285 Zapotec Indian school children between 6 and 13 years of age are presented and compared with those of well-nourished children from North and Meso-America. There are no significant differences in body size between Zapotec boys and girls during childhood. Yearly growth increments are also similar through the 10th year, after which age girls show an acceleration suggestive of the adolescent growth phase. Compared with well-nourished children, the undernourished Zapotec boys and girls show moderate growth deficits that accumulate throughout childhood. Growth deficiencies are not commensurate with their growth status, which is apparently more indicative of environmental insults experienced during the preschool years. These data confirm that the health and nutritional status of Zapotec school children, though suboptimal, show relative improvement after the preschool years.