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Demographic data for a rural Polish immigrant community in Texas were extracted from parish registers. During the period 1895 through 1944, 2737 births and 235 infant deaths were recorded. The major influences on infant mortality in this popu­lation were maternal age and birth order. The average infant mortality rate was 86 per 1000 births. Fluctuations in the relative importance of the endogenous and exogenous components of infant mortality rate were observed. While total and exogenous infant mortality rates decreased from 1895-1919 to 1920-1944, indicat­ing a relaxation in environmental stress, the endogenous infant mortality rate increased from 31% to 55% of the total infant mortality rate, suggesting important physiological stress.